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Immunoglobulins and Pregnancy

A short overview of the role of the different types of immunoglobulins in a reproductive immunology assessment.

April 2, 2022 Pregmune Team

Immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies, are key mediators of the immune system that identify and neutralize pathogens and other targets. Antibody levels can help indicate allergies and other inflammatory reactions.

Whether caused by an autoimmune condition, infection, allergies, or another source, inflammation is associated with reproductive challenges. During a healthy pregnancy, the body must be able to shift to a relatively anti-inflammatory state to maintain the pregnancy.

Immunoglobulin G

Immunoglobulin G, or IgG, is the main type of antibody that is found circulating in the bloodstream. It is a Y-shaped structure that acts by binding bacteria and other foreign substances that enter the body, making it an ideal defense against infections. When people do not have enough IgG, they are more likely to get infections.

Immunoglobulin A

Immunoglobulin A, or IgA, is typically found in our mucous membranes and their fluids (saliva, tears, discharge, etc.). IgA Can be a simple Y shape, or it can take the shape of two Ys joined end to end. IgA deficiencies are linked to asthma, allergies and autoimmune problems.

Immunoglobulin M

Immunoglobulin M, or IgM, is a large antibody formed from five Y shaped structures. It is mainly found in the bloodstream and is the initial antibody produced by the immune system when a pathogen is detected. This makes IgM useful for diagnosing when a person has recently experienced an infection.

Immunoglobulin E

Immunoglobulin E, or IgE, is a Y shaped antibody and the least abundant of all the immunoglobulins. It is thought to have a role in fighting infections by parasitic worms, but with our general low exposure to worms, is now most often linked to allergies. It is capable of triggering anaphylaxis.

Immunoglobulin D

Immunoglobulin D, or IgD, is not typically included in a reproductive immunology assessment. Very little is known about IgD’s biological function.

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About Pregmune: We’re an innovative reproductive health technology company, built on a solid foundation of data gained from decades of experience and thousands of successful pregnancies. Our team of fertility specialists and scientists are using artificial intelligence to decipher the complexity of the immune system and help patients grow the families of their dreams.

Our first product, IRMA, provides patients and their doctors with a personalized report and evidence-based treatment plan that addresses immunological sources of unexplained infertility, recurrent pregnancy loss, and recurrent implantation failure.